When I bought my first ukulele in 2012 I had no idea of the journey I had just begun. Up until that moment I had regarded the ukulele as a toy, or comedy prop, rather than an instrument. The only two people I associated with the ukulele were Tiny Tim and George Formby. Not exactly inspirational role models for a classical musician. I should mention that I studied classical guitar at the Royal College of Music in London and on graduating was awarded the Madeline Walton Guitar Prize. This is me playing a Venezuelan Waltz by Antonio Lauro on the guitar.
Since 1996 I have been a professional classical guitarist performing and teaching in Australia, Spain and the UK. When I started playing the ukulele in 2012 friends and colleagues thought I was a bit bonkers, but taking up the ukulele was not the antidote to a mid-life crisis. I wasn’t looking for an alternative to the guitar. Initially, I was just curious. Pretty soon I was smitten. Now, it’s a passion.
This was one of my first videos playing a Musette by Bach arranged by Tony Mizen. (The Baroque Ukulele published by Flea Market Music).
In October 2017 I was accepted into the Post-Graduate Research Programme (PhD) at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The title of my research project is New Works for Classical Ukulele. My research is both practical and theoretical. As well as researching the history of the instrument I have created a portfolio of new works which includes arrangements, compositions, collaborations with other composers and didactic material. The primary aim of my portfolio is to demonstrate the potential of the ukulele as a contemporary classical instrument. A further aim is to help secure the future of classical ukulele by creating material of all levels and actively engaging with the ukulele community through workshops and tutorials both live and on-line. While there is much interest and enthusiasm for classical ukulele within the ukulele scene, the ukulele is yet to accepted by the classical music scene. In order to help raise the profile of the ukulele I have given numerous talks on classical ukulele at events such as the International Guitar Research Centre, the Dublin Guitar Symposium, 21st Century Guitar, the European Guitar Teachers Association, the Guitar Foundation of America and the Colloquium for Guitar Research at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
Here’s one of my own compositions: The Story of the Falling Rain.
Championing the ukulele is a big task and it’s been a steep learning curve. When I bought my first ukulele in 2012, I didn’t know anything about the instrument. Nada! I didn’t even know they came in different sizes. My local music shop had a display of soprano ukuleles and after playing a few I chose a Tanglewood. I was captivated by the beautiful, harp-like sound and found the re-entrant tuning interesting. I’d spent my life playing a linear tuned guitar with 6 strings so a re-entrant tuned uke with 4 strings was a totally new concept. The ukulele was quirky, enigmatic and at times downright confusing. Let’s face it, having the 2nd highest string as the 4th string is pretty weird!
To find out more about my new purchase I searched the internet for sheet music. Initially, however, I could only find chord sheets for songs and endless YouTube tutorials showing you how to strum. I didn’t exactly know what I wanted to do with my ukulele, the only thing I new for certain was: I didn’t want to strum. Playing simple arpeggios (broken chords) was limited but rewarding. I felt sure there had to be more to the ukulele than just strumming. I was yet to discover the classical side of the ukulele and exponents such as John King, Tony Mizen, Rob MacKillop, Herman Vandecauter and Wilfried Welti. Here’s John King playing a Bouree by Bach.
Uke x 3
The most interesting thing I learnt from the strumming videos was that some people were playing bigger ukuleles. My ukulele was a soprano. Initially I was quite excited by the prospect of a ukulele family. However, all three sizes – soprano, concert and tenor – turned out to use the same standard tuning of high g C E A. This seemed, and still seems, very odd. What is the point of having a different sized instrument if you have the same tuning? OK, there are subtle differences in timbre but…really? To make an historical comparison both the lute and the renaissance guitar came in a variety of sizes. But different sized instruments also used different tunings. Smaller instruments would sound at a higher pitch than larger instruments. This gives the potential for a wider range when playing in consorts and ensembles, or when accompanying a singer. When you think about it, different sized instruments with different tunings does makes musical sense. Nevertheless, the most common sizes of the ukulele – soprano, concert & tenor – use the same standard tuning of g C E A.
There is, of course, the increasingly popular baritone ukulele. This does have a different tuning. The baritone is larger than the tenor ukulele and has the same tuning as the top four strings of the guitar – D G B E. Yeah! But wait… There is a trend to use G C E A tuning. The only variation to standard tuning being the use of a low G fourth string (unless you prefer to use a high g). Low G linear tuning isn’t confined to the baritone either, it’s popular in all sizes of ukuleles.
Swing Low or Swing High?
One advantage of low G is that the range of the instrument is extended to provide a few extra low notes. In a group situation the extra low notes would be an advantage but as a soloist, arranger and composer I prefer the high g. The ukulele is, by nature, an instrument with re-entrant tuning. Re-entrant tuning is what gives the ukulele its unique and typical sound. While I’m not opposed to low G tuning, adopting a linear tuning does change the nature of the instrument. As James Tyler points out in, A Guide to Playing the Baroque Guitar, chords on a re-entrant tuned instrument are ‘blocks’ of sound rather than clearly defined harmonic progressions. I also love the potential of campanella with high g tuning – something I’ll talk about shortly.
The DJ 5-String
One of my favourite ukuleles is a 5-string tenor made by DJ Morgan which has with both high g and low G. The two strings are struck simultaneously, or ‘as one’, sounding the octave.
I find this instrument ideal for playing Renaissance music. You can hear the five string in the video below. Please note: I’ve tuned this ukulele a semitone lower than normal. Why? A very tenuous answer but: I really like the sound. You can hear it in this video. I’m playing 3 pieces by Adrian Le Roy, originally for renaissance guitar.
The four main sizes of ukulele are soprano, concert, tenor and baritone. Only the baritone has a different tuning (unless it doesn’t….!) The only variation is the use of a low G fourth string as opposed to a re-entrant high g. Generally speaking: same tunings, different size instruments. A few players do tune their ukuleles up a tone to a D F# B but the g C E A tuning remains very much standard. I would also add that recently a few players, including myself, have been experimenting with alternate tunings. Here’s one such example:
The Big Taboo
If all ukuleles have the same tuning why do people choose to play different size instruments? This is the question you should never ask on a ukulele forum! If you want to read the gritty details then I’d recommend this informative article by Barry Maz of Got A Ukulele. Click here to read article.
What Ukuleles and Shoes Have in Common
I’m not going to even try to answer the ‘size’ question. Suffice to say, like shoes, they do come in different sizes. I would much prefer to tell you what I love about the soprano.
People often say they find the soprano too small but I really don’t have a problem with the size. In fact, I think the small fingerboard is what makes the soprano so attractive. I love playing campanella style. This is a baroque guitar technique which John King used in his arrangements. The melodic notes are placed across the strings which creates a sound like ‘little bells’. Campanella notes ring on and over each other in a wash of consonance and dissonance thus creating interesting harmonic nuances. This technique is particularly effective on re-entrant tuned instruments and is the perfect reason to use the high g 4th string. Here’s a campanella arrangement of an Irish tune.
I’ve experimented a great deal with campanella in my own compositions. Here’s an example:
Time Travel With the Ukulele
The ukulele has more in common with the five course baroque guitar and the four course renaissance guitar than it does with the modern guitar. These ancient instruments were also significantly smaller than the modern guitar. Once you realise this similarity a world of possibilities opens up and you find several hundred years of music to explore. Who said the ukulele is limited? Here’s Rob MacKillop playing his arrangement of Folias by the Baroque guitarists and composer Gaspar Sanz.
The Dusty End
The soprano fingerboard does require precision. The frets are close together so the further up the fingerboard you move the closer together the frets are. The guitar with its larger fingerboard has a larger area to aim at. If you don’t land exactly in the right place you might just buzz a bit and then adjust. On the soprano you don’t have this luxury. If you miss you are on the wrong note. There’s nowhere to hide.
Bach and the Ukulele
I did find I needed more than twelve frets on the soprano so I commissioned a fifteen fret soprano from Liam Kirby. This gives me a full two octave range – C to C. My original reason for the extra frets was to be able to play this Prelude by Bach without putting the final bars up an octave but I have also used the higher frets in my own compositions.
Initially, my biggest problem was holding the soprano. I’m used to playing the classical guitar which is supported by the legs and the body. The arms and hands are completely free to move around the instrument. This is ergonomically, musically and technically very important. An instrument has to be stable to be able to play it well. The problem I encountered with the soprano was that it was like a slippery fish. I needed to find a way to stabilise the instrument while keeping my arms and hands free.
I tried various supports including a guitar rest which attached to the ukulele with suction cups. Being designed for a guitar, the rest was too big and only one suction cup attached. This kept un-suctioning. Something which nearly drove me to distraction! Eventually I gave up on the rest and started using a strap. (Gasp! Yes, you wouldn’t believe how emotional people get about straps. This is another topic to avoid on ukulele forums!) The strap is attached to the ukulele with two buttons. One button on the end and one under the heal. After much trial and error I found the best strap was a wide, padded strap. Once the ukulele is in position the instrument is very secure. My arms and hands are uninhibited. I can play standing up or sitting down. (No! I can’t play standing on my head.) Using a strap gives me musical freedom.
The Beautiful Dream
One of my goals has been to explore and develop the potential of the ukulele. I’ve arranged works by Bach, Sor, Giuliani, Carulli, Carcassi, Tarrega, Le Roy, and Ferrer. In 2015 I was commissioned by Schott to arrange a book of 35 Scottish Folk Tunes. I’ve arranged numerous other traditional and folk tunes. Adapting this music to the ukulele is fun and challenging. It also made me aware just how versatile a ukulele can be. Jake Shimabukuro’s Nashville Sessions CD took the ukulele to a new level of creativity and experimentation proving that the full potential of the ukulele will only be realised by creating new works for the instrument.
Since 2017 many of my new works have been published by Les Productions d’Oz. These include 12 Progressive Studies, Variations on the Dowie Dens of Yarrow, 21 Studies, 100 Arpeggios, 12 Progressive Lessons by Sor, The Falling Rain, The Classical Ukulele Method, 12 Traditional Tunes, A Conspiracy of Ravens, Mercurius Suite and 22 Pieces from Renaissance to Late Classical. My pieces have also been recorded by Donald Bousted and Giovanni Albini.
Why the ukulele needs to be taken ‘seriously’
The ukulele is accessible, portable and affordable. It’s the ideal instrument for both children and adults. It’s a highly sociable instrument with many people joining local ukulele clubs and groups for a sing-a-long. While this is hugely popular, and one of the main attractions of the ukulele, it is only one side of the story. Many schools are now choosing the ukulele over the recorder as the first instrument for children. One of the benefits of a the ukulele is that a child can sing and play at the same time. With 3 or 4 chords they can sing and strum hundreds of songs. This is fine, but limiting. The real potential of the ukulele is to use it as a tool to teach children, and for that matter adults, how to read music and how to grasp the basic concepts of harmony (chords), melody (the tune) and rhythm. The ukulele is the perfect instrument for teaching music literacy and could provide a sound musical foundation for other instruments, such as the guitar.
In the last ten years I’ve seen some big changes in the ukulele scene; most notably the growing interest in classical and finger-style ukulele. This is perhaps best reflected in the wealth of material now available in printed in digital formats by arrangers and composers from across the globe. My website now includes a list of classical and finger-style publications. While the list is not definitive it is comprehensive and constantly being updated as new material becomes available. When I first started playing the ukulele I struggled to find suitable repertoire so I hope the list will be a useful resource for new players or those interested in expanding their repertoire.